Cows and bulls are the second most commonly consumed animals in the United Kingdom. Around half of the production comes from dairy cows that are no longer considered profitable, with the other half coming from animals specifically bred for their flesh.

Living Conditions

Likely to be mostly outdoors

No data is available for the living conditions of bulls and cows, but it is likely to be mostly outdoors

Age at Death

A majority of bulls and cows used for their flesh are killed before 2 years of age


21 months


Natural life expectancy

Method of Death

A majority of bulls and cows are killed using bolt guns

Farming Practices

Horn Mutilations

Calves heads are permanently damaged using a hot iron to prevent horns from forming

In British farming

Skin Mutilations

Calves hair follicles are permanently damaged using irons cooled to well below zero as a method of identification

In British farming

Ear Mutilations

Calves ears are pierced or chunks are removed as a method of identification

In British farming

Genital Mutilations

Calves genitals are severed to make their flesh tenderer and to simplify management

In British farming


Cows and bulls are kept in barren pens where they are fattened in the months and weeks leading up to being killed

In British farming


Thank you for taking the time to read this page. We believe the exploitation of animals is an important issue and wish to get this message out to as many people as possible.